KEY IDEAS- HIGH RENAISSANCE (1495-1520)
* Revitalization of the city of Rome under Pope Julius II
* All about Roman Grandeur by producing awe inspiring artistic projects
* Key Points: Symmetry, Balance, Ideal Proportions, Triangular compositions
* Venetian Painters stress sensuous forms with sophisticated color combos
* Portraits are of true likeness and personalities
* Renaissance = Before sack of Rome
* Mannerism = After 1527
73. Last Supper, * Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci
76. School of Athens, Raphael
75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescos,
* Michelangelo: David, Pieta, Moses, Bound Slaves
* Bramante: tempieto, Plan for St. Peter’s
* Raphael’s cycle of paintings Stanza della Segnatura
80. Venus of Urbino, Titian
* Villa Rotunda, Palladio
* Last Supper, Tintoretto
* Feast in the House of Levi, Veronese
KEY IDEAS- MANNERISM (1520-1600)
HIGH RENAISSANCE CONTEXT
* Mannerist art is deliberately intellectual, asking the viewer to respond in a sophisticated way to the spatial challenges
* Complicated compositions, distorted figures, complex allegorical interpretations
* Leading intellectual trait of the era was the recovery of the secular, humane and creative philosophy of Greece & Rome.
* Individualism had been suppressed by rise of the caste system in Roman Empire, Middle ages feudalism & the Church
* Medieval Christianity restricted individual expression & demanded faith & obedience, ignoring man & nature
* 14th-17th C. brought the emancipation of the individual.
* The city-states of northern Italy had contact with diverse customs of the East & opened expression in art & music.
* The writings of Dante, Petrarch & Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom & individual expression.
* Individualism & the instinct of curiosity were vigorously cultivated - honest doubt began to replace unreasoning faith.
* The spirit of individualism encouraged the Protestant revolt
* Freedom of expression & opposition to authority became an integral part of the western intellectual tradition.
1. Rome as cultural capital becomes the new Athens after expulsion of the Medici’s in Florence
2. Papal power Pope Julius II and Leo X - political as well as cultural ambitions
3. The artist as genius Michelangelo, Raphael, da Vinci - artist as hero, inspired, “divine”
4. Art as metaphor art signs for: 1. the ambitions of their patrons, 2. the ego of the artist/creator, 3. philosophical ideas large scale painting, sculpture programs, and architecture
5. Monumental ambition and scale large scale painting, sculpture programs, and architecture
6. Neoplatonic thought - the Philosophical Basis of Michelangelo’s Sculpture and Painting
Levels in his design for the organization of the Sistine Chapel ceiling program (and Julius II’s tomb):
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